Diamond, the most famous gemstone out there, is fully composed of carbon. It's extremely hard (10 on Mohs scale) but at the same time it's also brittle and can break from one blow, which is why diamond cutting is an very delicate process. Diamonds possess an extraordinary refractive power, which gives them their brilliance.
Gemstone quality diamonds are much rarer than industrial grade diamonds, which have a number of uses. Due to their hardness, diamonds should be stored separately from other jewelry pieces, in order not to scratch and damage them, and also separately from each other.
Diamonds can vary in color - while most diamonds that are sold are colorless or light yellow, they can also be red, green, orange, brown, blue, and so on. Diamonds with particularly strong colors are called "fancy diamonds", and are very rare and expensive. Diamonds' price varies depending on color and carat weight, among other factors, where bigger diamonds' value increases proportionally, compared to the the value of smaller pieces - big exemplars are much rarer.
Diamonds occur in a number of countries in the world, and South Africa is still a major producer. Other mining sites include India, Russia, China, Australia, Brazil, Botswana, and more.
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