Quartz, or silicon dioxide (SiO2) is a very abundant mineral, occurring in many colors, such as purple, pink, red, blue, green, yellow, orange, white, gray or can also be colorless. It's present in many different parts of the world and can be mined from a number of different rocks.
There are many gemstone varieties of quartz, the most famous ones being amethyst, citrine, and rose quartz, among others. Quartz is often treated to enhance its color; this can be achieved via a heat treatment, irradiation, or other methods. Additionally, quartz can be synthetically grown.
Quartz's price makes it a rather affordable gemstone in its different varieties, and is used in all kinds of jewelry, such as pendants, bracelets, necklaces, earrings, or rings. Quartz's value depends on color and clarity, among other factors, as these two can vary a lot; large quartz exemplars are not uncommon, so carat weight is less of a defining factor - the price per carat will be rather stable for smaller and for bigger stones and will not increase dramatically, proportionally to the weight.
Some of the biggest producers of gemstone quartz in the world are Brazil, the US, India and Madagascar.
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